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Kakum - Birdlife International IBA Factsheet
IBA code GH014  Kakum Conservation Area
Country/Territory Ghana
Administrative region(s) Central
Central coordinates 1o 19' West 5o 26' North
Area 36600 ha
Altitude 135 - 250m
Criteria A1, A2, A3


Site description

Kakum National Park and the contiguous Assin Attandanso Resource Reserve are situated in the Central Region, about 30 minutes drive north of Cape Coast. Together, the two sites protect some 36,600 ha of moist evergreen forest (Kakum 21,200 ha, Assin Attandanso 15,400 ha). The terrain is generally flat with some hills in the south-western corner. The greater part of the site has been selectively logged. Kakum was logged from at least 1975 to 1989, while logging in Assin Attandanso was continuous from 1975 to 1988. The recently logged areas currently support a thick undergrowth, vine tangles and regenerating secondary forest, but good forest still remains in other areas, with a well-developed canopy and a comparatively open understorey.

Habitats and percentage cover:

Artificial landscapes: 3%
Forest: 90%
Unknown: 6%

Birds

The site is one of the best-studied in Ghana with 266 species known to occur and a further 56 reported to do so, but requiring confirmation. The eight species of global conservation concern include Agelastes meleagrides which, however, occurs only in very low numbers due to past heavy hunting pressure. Nine species of hornbill have been recorded and Psittacus erithacus are commonly seen, mornings and evenings, flying overhead between roosting and feeding sites.

Species Season Year Min Max Quality Criteria
White-breasted Guineafowl (Agelastes meleagrides) resident 2000 0 0 - A1, A2, A3
Forest Francolin (Francolinus lathami) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Ahanta Francolin (Francolinus ahantensis) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Hartlaub's Duck (Pteronetta hartlaubii) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
White-crested Tiger-heron (Tigriornis leucolopha) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Red-thighed Sparrowhawk (Accipiter erythropus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Long-tailed Hawk (Urotriorchis macrourus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Cassin's Hawk-eagle (Spizaetus africanus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
White-spotted Flufftail (Sarothrura pulchra) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Nkulengu Rail (Himantornis haematopus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Grey-throated Rail (Canirallus oculeus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Blue-headed Wood-dove (Turtur brehmeri) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Black-collared Lovebird (Agapornis swindernianus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Guinea Turaco (Tauraco persa) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Yellow-billed Turaco (Tauraco macrorhynchus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Dusky Long-tailed Cuckoo (Cercococcyx mechowi) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Black-throated Coucal (Centropus leucogaster) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Sandy Scops-owl (Otus icterorhynchus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Fraser's Eagle-owl (Bubo poensis) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Akun Eagle-owl (Bubo leucostictus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Red-chested Owlet (Glaucidium tephronotum) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Black Spinetail (Telacanthura melanopygia) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Sabine's Spinetail (Rhaphidura sabini) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Cassin's Spinetail (Neafrapus cassini) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Blue-throated Roller (Eurystomus gularis) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Chocolate-backed Kingfisher (Halcyon badia) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
White-bellied Kingfisher (Alcedo leucogaster) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Black Bee-eater (Merops gularis) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Rosy Bee-eater (Merops malimbicus) breeding 2000 0 0 unknown A3
Forest Woodhoopoe (Phoeniculus castaneiceps) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Black Dwarf Hornbill (Tockus hartlaubi) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Red-billed Dwarf Hornbill (Tockus camurus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
African Pied Hornbill (Tockus fasciatus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
White-crested Hornbill (Tropicranus albocristatus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Piping Hornbill (Bycanistes fistulator) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Black-and-white-casqued Hornbill (Bycanistes subcylindricus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Brown-cheeked Hornbill (Bycanistes cylindricus) resident 2000 0 0 - A1, A2, A3
Black-casqued Hornbill (Ceratogymna atrata) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Yellow-casqued Hornbill (Ceratogymna elata) resident 2000 0 0 - A1, A3
Naked-faced Barbet (Gymnobucco calvus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Bristle-nosed Barbet (Gymnobucco peli) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Speckled Tinkerbird (Pogoniulus scolopaceus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Red-rumped Tinkerbird (Pogoniulus atroflavus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Yellow-throated Tinkerbird (Pogoniulus subsulphureus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Yellow-spotted Barbet (Buccanodon duchaillui) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Hairy-breasted Barbet (Tricholaema hirsuta) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Yellow-billed Barbet (Trachyphonus purpuratus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Cassin's Honeyguide (Prodotiscus insignis) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Yellow-footed Honeyguide (Melignomon eisentrauti) resident 2000 0 0 - A1, A3
Spotted Honeyguide (Indicator maculatus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Willcocks's Honeyguide (Indicator willcocksi) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Little Green Woodpecker (Campethera maculosa) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Buff-spotted Woodpecker (Campethera nivosa) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Brown-eared Woodpecker (Campethera caroli) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Fire-bellied Woodpecker (Thripias pyrrhogaster) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Rufous-sided Broadbill (Smithornis rufolateralis) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
African Shrike-flycatcher (Megabyas flammulatus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Chestnut Wattle-eye (Platysteira castanea) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Red-cheeked Wattle-eye (Platysteira blissetti) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Chestnut-bellied Helmet-shrike (Prionops caniceps) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Large-billed Puffback (Dryoscopus sabini) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Sooty Boubou (Laniarius leucorhynchus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Blue Cuckooshrike (Coracina azurea) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Western Black-headed Oriole (Oriolus brachyrhynchus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Black-winged Oriole (Oriolus nigripennis) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Shining Drongo (Dicrurus atripennis) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Blue-headed Crested-flycatcher (Trochocercus nitens) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Black-headed Paradise-flycatcher (Terpsiphone rufiventer) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Dusky Crested-flycatcher (Elminia nigromitrata) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Chestnut-capped Flycatcher (Erythrocercus mccallii) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Dusky Tit (Parus funereus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Tit-hylia (Pholidornis rushiae) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Square-tailed Saw-wing (Psalidoprocne nitens) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Fanti Saw-wing (Psalidoprocne obscura) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Black-capped Apalis (Apalis nigriceps) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Sharpe's Apalis (Apalis sharpii) resident 2000 0 0 - A2, A3
Yellow-browed Camaroptera (Camaroptera superciliaris) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Olive-green Camaroptera (Camaroptera chloronota) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Grey Greenbul (Andropadus gracilis) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Ansorge's Greenbul (Andropadus ansorgei) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Plain Greenbul (Andropadus curvirostris) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Golden Greenbul (Calyptocichla serina) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Honeyguide Greenbul (Baeopogon indicator) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Spotted Greenbul (Ixonotus guttatus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Simple Greenbul (Chlorocichla simplex) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Swamp Greenbul (Thescelocichla leucopleura) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Leaf-love (Pyrrhurus scandens) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
White-throated Greenbul (Phyllastrephus albigularis) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Icterine Greenbul (Phyllastrephus icterinus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Common Bristlebill (Bleda syndactylus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Green-tailed Bristlebill (Bleda eximius) resident 2000 0 0 - A1, A2, A3
Grey-headed Bristlebill (Bleda canicapillus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Bearded Bulbul (Criniger barbatus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Red-tailed Bulbul (Criniger calurus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Yellow-bearded Greenbul (Criniger olivaceus) resident 2000 0 0 - A1, A2, A3
Yellow-spotted Nicator (Nicator chloris) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Kemp's Longbill (Macrosphenus kempi) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Grey Longbill (Macrosphenus concolor) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Violet-backed Hyliota (Hyliota violacea) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Green Hylia (Hylia prasina) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Rufous-crowned Eremomela (Eremomela badiceps) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Green Crombec (Sylvietta virens) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Lemon-bellied Crombec (Sylvietta denti) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Blackcap Illadopsis (Illadopsis cleaveri) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Rufous-winged Illadopsis (Illadopsis rufescens) resident 2000 0 0 - A1, A2, A3
Brown Illadopsis (Illadopsis fulvescens) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Copper-tailed Glossy-starling (Lamprotornis cupreocauda) resident 2000 0 0 - A1, A2, A3
Chestnut-winged Starling (Onychognathus fulgidus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Narrow-tailed Starling (Poeoptera lugubris) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
White-tailed Ant-thrush (Neocossyphus poensis) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Rufous Flycatcher-thrush (Stizorhina fraseri) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
White-tailed Alethe (Alethe diademata) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
(Stiphrornis erythrothorax) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
African Forest Flycatcher (Fraseria ocreata) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Ussher's Flycatcher (Muscicapa ussheri) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Olivaceous Flycatcher (Muscicapa olivascens) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Little Grey Flycatcher (Muscicapa epulata) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Dusky-blue Flycatcher (Muscicapa comitata) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Scarlet-tufted Sunbird (Anthreptes fraseri) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Green Sunbird (Anthreptes rectirostris) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Little Green Sunbird (Nectarinia seimundi) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Blue-throated Brown Sunbird (Nectarinia cyanolaema) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Buff-throated Sunbird (Nectarinia adelberti) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Tiny Sunbird (Nectarinia minulla) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Superb Sunbird (Nectarinia superba) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Vieillot's Black Weaver (Ploceus nigerrimus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Yellow-mantled Weaver (Ploceus tricolor) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Preuss's Weaver (Ploceus preussi) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Red-vented Malimbe (Malimbus scutatus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Gray's Malimbe (Malimbus nitens) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Crested Malimbe (Malimbus malimbicus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Red-headed Malimbe (Malimbus rubricollis) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Red-fronted Antpecker (Parmoptila rubrifrons) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
White-breasted Negrofinch (Nigrita fusconotus) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Chestnut-breasted Negrofinch (Nigrita bicolor) resident 2000 0 0 - A3
Western Bluebill (Spermophaga haematina) resident 2000 0 0 - A3

Conservation issues

Both Kakum and Assin Attandanso were originally Forest Reserves, designated in 1931 and 1937, respectively. Following recommendations dating back to the 1960s, Kakum Reserve was given National Park status and Assin Attandanso became a Resource Reserve, and the two were placed under the administration of the Wildlife Department. Under the direction of Conservation International and with funding support from USAID, Kakum is certainly the best-protected forest site in Ghana, and has been developed in recent years to become a major tourist attraction. Poaching continues to be a major problem, but it is hoped that levels will be reduced in the near future, as a result of moves to return some of the benefits of tourism from the park to local communities and involve them in its management.

BirdLife International 2007 - BirdLife's online World Bird Database: the site for bird conservation. Version 2.1. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. Available: http://www.birdlife.org (accessed 8/4/2008)